By : M.S.Yatnatti Editor and Video Journalist Bengaluru : Reportedly The RBI's asset quality review in 2015 pushed up the level of gross NPAs to large industry from a little under Rs 1.2 lakh crore at the end of March 2015 to Rs 5.3 lakh crore at the end of last December a jump of four-and-a-half times in 33 months. Indiscriminate lending in boom years and the Reserve Bank of India's (RBI's) pressure on banks to recognise sticky assets on their books have resulted in some lenders having to classify over 40% of their loans to large industry as non-performing assets (NPAs), or bad debt, putting pressure on their profits.
According to RBI's timelines :If the account does not reflect credits into the account, 90 days preceding the date of balance sheet of the firm. Temporary deficiencies like late/ non-submission of stock statements or balance outstanding exceeding the drawing power, non-renewal of limits should not get categorized as NPA. And If the borrower does not pay three installments continuously after 90 days but up to 12 months the account becomes sub-standard and NPA. Section 13 (2) empowers the Bank/ FI to serve a notice to the borrower for taking possession of the assets held as security for the money lent by it. But there is precursor to this action: the Bank/FI shall serve notice to the borrower to discharge his full liabilities within 60 days from the date of notice that should also detail out the legal consequences and penal provisions. Going by these two directions under the Act, the borrower should be getting at least 17 months' time before the Bank could proceed against the defaulting MSMEs. The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest (SARFAESI) Act 2002 is a powerful instrument in the hands of the banks and financial institutions (FIs) as secured creditors. This Act helps them enforce securities held as collateral to loans disbursed by them should such loans turn out as non-performing assets (NPAs) during the currency of the loan without interference from the Courts. Section 13 of the Act gives power to the secured creditor even to evict the tenant. It is our observation that the banks have been overenthusiastic in taking recourse to SAFRAESI Act provisions as a first resort of recovering the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) loans, mostly violating guidelines of Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
Finance is the backbone of business.No trade or industry can run without adequate finance.The internal resources of a business organisation are often insufficient for meeting all its needs.It is also not always possible for the owners, promoters or the entrepreneurs to mobilize finance from their own resources.Therefore promoters raise capital through borrowings, keeping in view the short term, medium term or long term requirements of the trade or industry.Every industrial project requires finance in the form of risk capital, long term, medium term and short term or working capital and/or machinery on hire purchase/lease basis. All these types of financial assistance are provided by various institutional agencies, commercial banks, co-operative banks, Regional Rural Banks, State Financial Corporations and International FinancialInstitutions and Syndicated Loan Market and NSIC etc,. A great emphasis has been placed by the government to ensure that all viable projects are provided adequate finance (Capital) for a sustained growth of trade and industry.The borrowed funds have enabled many promoters to realise their dreams and to bring their project to an actual shape. Timely availability of Institutional and bank finance at reasonable rates is essential for successful implementation of any commercial project. This requires thorough and upto date knowledge of lending schemes of various financial institutions likeIDBI, IFCI, ICICI, IRBI, SCICI, Exim Bank, Commercial Banks, RCTC, SIDBI, UTI, LIC, SFCs etc., particularly with reference to the preparation of project report, appraisal by the lending institutions, assessment of financial requirements as per RBI norms, terms and conditions on which finance is available, procedure for filing application for finance, execution of documents and charging of securities.Besides the financing has to be done as per the RBI Credit Policy & Instructions contained in its various Circulars & Committee Recommendations. Special RBI instructions have also been issued on bank finance, for Leasing & Hire purchase Concerns, Diamond Exporters, Consortium Advances, Housing Finance, Priority Sector Advances, Export Credit, Commercial papers etc.