By : M.S.Yatnatti: Editor and Video Journalist Bangaluru : Human rights need to be protected by police. The requirements, referred to below flow from Articles 21 and 22 (1) of the Constitution and need to be strictly followed in respect of arrest or detention. Investigation: As per Supreme Court judgment (1996) in D.K. BASU Versus State of West Bengal Requirements to be followed in all cases of arrest or detention by police are mentioned. The Police personnel carrying out the arrest and handling the interrogation should bear accurate, visible and clear identification.The particular of all such police personnel must be recorded in a register.That the police officer carrying out the arrest of the arrestee shall prepare a memo or arrest at the time of arrest and such memo shall be attested by at least one witness. A person who has been arrested or detained shall be entitled to have one friend or relative or other person known to him. The time, place of arrest and venue of custody must be notified by the police where the next friend or relative lives through the Legal Aid Organisation in the Districtand the police station of the area concerned telegraphically within a period of 8 to 12 hours after the arrest. The person arrested must be made aware of this right to have someone informed of his arrest or detention .An entry must be made in the diary at the place of detention regarding the arrest of the person disclosingthe name of the next friend and the names and particulars of the police officials in whose custody the arrestee is.The arrestee should be also examined at the time of his arrest and major and minor injuries, if any present on his / her body, must be recorded at that time.the "Inspection Memo” must be signed both by the arrestee and the police officer effecting the arrest and its copy provided to the arrestee. The arrestee should be subjected to medical examination by a trained doctor every 48 hours during his detention in custody. Copies of all the documents including the memo of arrest, referred to above, should be sent to the Magistrate for his record. The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation. A police control room should be provided at all district and state headquarters, where information regarding the arrest shall be communicated by the officer causing the arrest, within 12 hours of effecting the arrest. Information regarding the arrest shall be communicated to all district and state headquarters by the officer causing the arrest, within 12 hours of effecting the arrest. The requirements, referred to above flow from Articles 21 and 22 (1) of the Constitution and need to be strictly followed. Investigation: Investigation by any police officer of any male below 15 years or any woman can be made only at the place of residence (Sec.160 Cr. P.C)
Arrest: Persons arrested must be informed of the full particulars of the offence committed and the grounds for arrest. (Sec.50 Cr. P.C. & Art 22 (1) - Constitution of India).All persons arrested / detained must be served a custody memo as per Supreme Court directions in D.K. Basu Vs State of West Bengal.Persons arrested cannot be detained for more than 24 hours in Police Custody (Sec.56/57 Cr.P.C. & Art 22 (2) Constitution of India.An Accused person is entitled to a copy, free of cost, of the Police Final Report, First Information Report (FIR), statements of all persons whom prosecution proposes to examine as its witnesses (Sec 207, Sec. 154, Sec. 161 ) confessions and statements if any recorded and any other documents, relevant extracts forwarded to the magistrate.The arrested person has a right to consult and be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice (Article 22 (1) of the Constitution of India).If the arrested person is poor, he can get free Legal Assistance from the Legal Services Authority (Art 39 A Constitution of India).The person arrested, has a right to be examined by a registered medical practitioner (Sec.54) to disprove, the commission of Offence or to prove the ill-treatment of the police or any other suitable reason. (S.54 Cr. P.C).In the case of a woman the medical examination has to be made only by a female registered medical practitioner.Police are empowered by Sec.41, 42, 151 and 432 (3) of Cr.P.C. to arrest without a warrant.Arrest should not be made on mere suspicion (145 Cr. P.C).The arrested person is entitled for compensation for groundless arrest / illegal detention.The registering of the FIR is not a condition precedent to grant anticipatory bail.Warrant of arrest should be in writing and signed by the Presiding officer of the court with seal.Substance of the warrant should be shown or intimated to the person to be arrested.
Police Custody: Custody includes surrender of accused before the court and submissions to directions.A Magistrate may order for the remand of the arrested person to police custody u/s 167 (3) of the Cr.P.C.The Magistrate should be fully satisfied that there is good ground to remand the accused to police custody.If a person is released on bail he cannot be remanded to police custody. When remand to police custody is granted (subject to Supreme Court orders in D.K. Basu).the accused in police custody can be kept in police lock - up.can be taken to any place for purposes of investigation within this period.can be kept at any place for purposes of investigation within this period.there should always be an entry in the Daily Diary (i.e. General Diary) when accused is taken out of police lock-up or readmitted;if the accused falls ill in police lock-up, he must be given medical aid or treatment admitted for in a hospital.if an accused dies in police custody, officer - in - charge shall immediately inform the nearest Executive Magistrate empowered to hold inquests, for investigation u/s 176 Cr.P.C. and intimated to the National Human Rights Commission within 24 hours.detention of accused for longer than 24 hours when not produced for remand and beyond period of remand without orders of Magistrate is illegal and Police Officer is liable u/s 342 IPC and u/s 29 of the Police Act. Accused may engage a counsel during proceedings of remand and accused may raise an objection that the police is not entitled to custody.
Bail: Person accused of a bailable offence has right to be released on bail.It is the duty of the police officer incharge to intimate this.Bail not Jail is the Rule of Law.An accused person surrendering before the Magistrate has a right to bail or demand judicial custody.The provision of bail to women, sick and old age persons is given prioritysubject to the nature of the offence.Once the accused is granted bailby invoking Sec. 205 Cr.P.C. he neednot attend the court(unless it is a condition of bail) before charegesheet is filed and process issued .If no charge -sheet is filed before the expiry of 60/90 days as the case may be, the accused in custody has a right to be released on bail.If the arrested person is remanded to judicial custody by the Magistrate on Sundays or holidays, the bail application should be considered on the Sunday or the holidayitself.In non-bailable offences, the Magistrate has the power to release on bail without notice to the other side if charge sheet is not filed within a period of sixty days.